In December 1995, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued seafood regulations based on the principles of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP). HACCP is a preventive system of hazard control rather than a reactive one. To ensure safer foods, the HACCP system is designed to identify hazards, establish controls, and monitor those controls. The seven HACCP principles are:
1. Conduct a hazard analysis. Prepare a list of steps in the process where significant hazards may occur and describe the preventive measures.
2. Identify the critical control points (CCP) in the process.
3. Establish critical limits for the preventive measures associated with each CCP identified.
4. Establish CCP monitoring requirements. Establish procedures for using monitoring results to adjust the process and maintain control.
5. Establish corrective actions to be taken when monitoring indicates that there is a deviation from an established critical limit.
6. Establish procedures for verification that the HACCP system is working correctly.
7. Establish effective record-keeping procedures that document the HACCP system. HACCP is a preventive system for ensuring food safety, but it is not a stand-alone system. HACCP must be built upon current food-safety programs such as Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs) (e.g., sanitation and personal hygiene programs) to make it work.